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數位時代未來趨勢系列

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片名:數位時代未來趨勢系列

位革命已經深入到我們生活的許多領域,對大多數人來說,數位科技現在是工作、生活和休閒時間不可或缺的一部分,在許多方面,它們豐富了我們的生活,讓我們的生活變得更容易,例如,讓資訊和資源變得容易獲取,提供多樣化的交流平臺,以及從事單調或危險的工作,高度複雜的系統現在可以比以往更快、更有效地檢測組織樣本中的癌症細胞,或是在車輛的碰撞預防,但這些科技也存在風險,許多日常互動都會讓我們的個資外洩,這些資訊被未知的實體用來向我們發送新聞、行銷和政治資訊,問題仍然存在:誰或者什麼是更好的決策者,人類還是機器?

The digital revolution has advanced into many areas of our lives. For most people, digital technologies are now an intrinsic part of both working life and leisure time. In many ways, they enrich our life and make it easier – for example, by making information and resources accessible, providing a diverse range of communication platforms, and taking on monotonous or dangerous jobs. Highly complex systems can now detect cancer cells in tissue samples more quickly and efficiently than ever before, or brake vehicles ahead of a potential collision. But these technologies also harbor risks. Many everyday interactions require us to divulge a huge amount of personal information – used by unknown entities to bombard us with news, marketing and political messages. The question remains: Who – or what – are the better decision-makers. Humans or machines?

 
 
♦ 網路數據的安全防護
 Data Protection – How to Maintain a Safe Online Presence
 
 

數位世界中保護個人隱私和數據安全的重要性,這部紀錄片利用具體案例研究提出保護網路隱私的可能解決方案。

網路犯罪者、大型科技公司和情報機構有什麼共通點?他們都渴望獲得網路使用者的個人資料,這是因為在 21 世紀,掌握這類資訊等於擁有權力,但如今,為了使用線上工具和參與社會,洩露個人資料是必要的。什麼樣的網路數據保護措施是合適的呢?不同的問題需要不同的解決方法:例如,提高年輕人保護私生活的意識;或確保記者可以透過安全管道發送敏感資料,如果網路使用者想要安全的線上體驗,他們應該問自己哪些問題?他們在日常生活中瀏覽網路時可以使用哪些工具和策略?

What do cybercriminals, Big Tech companies and intelligence agencies have in common? They’re all keen to get their hands on Internet users’ personal data. That’s because in the 21st century control of this kind of information equals power. But divulging personal data is necessary for using online tools and for taking part in society nowadays. What might adequate online data protection look like? Different issues require different approaches: for example, raising awareness among young people about safeguarding their private lives; or ensuring journalists can send sensitive material via secure channels. If Internet users want a safe online experience, what questions should they be asking themselves? And what tools and strategies can they use as they navigate the web in their everyday lives?

影片預覽
 
 
♦ 合成媒體–深偽技術的運作模式
 What is Reality – How Deepfakes Work
 
 

Deepfakes技術的快速發展對於現實和社會帶來的潛在風險及這些風險對於社會和政治的影響,我們如何保護現實免受偽造的侵害。

Deepfakes是由人工智慧創建的合成媒體,其中真實的人物被要求說並做一些他們實際上沒有說過或做過的事情,專家擔心,到2030年,高達90%的線上影片可能由合成影像組成。如今,辨別深度偽造影片和真實影片已經很困難了,而用於創建此類素材的電腦生成圖像應用程式現在對所有人都非常友好且易於使用。我們應該捍衛現實,對抗假象嗎?如果是這樣,該如何做呢?

Deepfakes are synthetic media created by Artificial Intelligence, where real people are made to say and do things that they have not actually said or done. Experts fear that, by the year 2030, up to 90 per cent of all online videos could consist of synthetically generated images. These days it’s already difficult to tell a deepfake from an authentic video. And the Computer-Generated Imagery applications used to create this kind of material are now very user-friendly and accessible to all. Should we be defending reality against fakes? And if so, how?

影片預覽
 
 
♦ 智能時代的人機交錯
 Delegated Responsibility – What Sort of Tasks Can We Entrust to Machines
 
 

數位轉型中,我們需思考將何種決策權交給機器,並平衡自主權和責任,以確保科技發展符合人類價值觀和倫理原則。

無論是自動駕駛汽車、自動無人機或醫療應用,近年來科技進步已大大擴展了人類活動的範圍。但科技可以用於好的目的,也可以用於壞的目的,無人機可以作為戰爭武器部署,或用於在自然災害後定位和救治傷者,在醫學領域,人工智慧已被用來評估收集人類卵子的基因可行性,但機器是否該決定哪些卵子應該受精和植入,哪些應該被丟棄?科學家、哲學家和程式設計師都在努力解決應該分配給機器多少責任以及哪些決定最好由人類來做的問題。

Whether it’s autonomous vehicles, autonomous drones or medical applications, technological progress has vastly expanded the scope of human activity in recent years. But technology can be used to both good and bad ends. Drones can be deployed as weapons of war – or, say, used to locate and recover the injured following natural catastrophes. In medicine, AI is already used to grade the genetic viability of harvested human eggs. But should machines then decide which should be fertilized and implanted, and which discarded? Scientists, philosophers and programmers are all grappling with the question of how much responsibility should be assigned to machines – and which decisions are best left to humans.

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♦ 打造沉浸式虛擬實境世界
  Virtual or Reality – Creating Immersive Worlds
 
 

一種激動人心的新娛樂形式席捲了文化界。沉浸式、互動式和參與式項目在戲劇、電影和藝術領域的成功,顯示消費者與敘事和體驗創意作品的方式發生了一場革命,它徹底重新定義觀眾的身份。傳統上,觀眾被動地體驗創意作品,通常在作品的整個過程中都呆在一個座位或某個位置,而對沉浸式作品的嘗試會讓觀眾成為故事的一部分,從而模糊了現實生活結束與體驗開始之間的界限。在充斥著持續不斷的資訊衝擊的世界中,講故事的人和藝術家如何吸引觀眾並讓他們參與其中?越來越多的趨勢是讓他們完全沉浸在故事中。

沉浸在另一個世界一直是文學、戲劇和電影的目標之一。數位科技將沉浸感提升到一個全新的水平,並挑戰了現實和虛構的傳統定義,它徹底重新定義觀眾的身份,身歷其境的互動世界一直是電腦遊戲開發者的領域,現在,許多藝術形式的創意人員正探索如何吸引觀眾並讓他們參與其中?一種撼動人心的新娛樂形式席捲了文化界。紐約翠貝卡電影節推出了沉浸式敘事的專門類別,對於此處提交的項目,主要透過虛擬現實護目鏡向觀眾呈現個人視覺印象,相比之下,在身歷其境的劇院體驗中,數位科技逐漸成為背景。在美國匹茲堡市,Bricolage劇院公司強調觀眾的積極參與,來自荷蘭的Daan Roosegaarde 創造了身歷其境的藝術世界,通常在公共場所探索人與自然之間的動態關係,對於他在紐約的“Waterlicht”裝置,整個街道都變暗了,然後幾乎被大量的水淹沒,Roosegarde工作室的作品將遊客帶入虛擬世界,在這樣做的過程中,科技對象經常與空間和人進行交流。數位科技正以越來越快的速度創造新的現實。

Immersion in other worlds has always been one of the objectives of literature, theatre and film. Digital technologies take immersion to a whole new level and challenge traditional definitions of reality and fiction. Immersive, interactive worlds were long the domain of computer game developers. Now, creatives from many art forms are exploring these new dimensions of storytelling. New York's Tribeca Film Festival has launched a dedicated category for immersive storytelling. For the projects submitted here, the audience is presented with individual visual impressions, mostly through virtual reality goggles. In immersive theatre experiences, by contrast, digital technology fades into the background. In the American city of Pittsburgh, the Bricolage theatre company emphasises active audience participation. Daan Roosegaarde, from the Netherlands, creates immersive art worlds which explore the dynamic relationship between humans and nature, often in public spaces. For his “Waterlicht” installation in New York, entire streets were darkened and then virtually flooded with masses of water. The works of the Roosegaarde studio transport the visitor into virtual worlds. In so doing, the technological objects often communicate with the space and the people. Ever more and ever faster, digital technology is helping to create new realities.

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 人機互動模式未來介面 
  The Interfaces of the Future – New Models of Interaction
 
 

一部引領歐洲科學推廣項目的紀錄片。
數位時代的標誌是人與機器的互動,甚至到了將兩者融合的地步。這裡的一個重要領域是材料研究。 智能材料進入人機交互界面。與有遠見的研究人員一起,大自然為新材料提供了幾乎無窮無盡的例子和靈感來源,而不僅僅是被用來製造原材料。科學家、設計師、奈米研究人員和科技愛好者因超前思考的動力及突破熟悉界限的勇氣而團結在一起。樂器製造等傳統手工藝已經在使用3D打印機的塑料進行試驗;仿生義肢正在將科幻小說變為現實;原始細胞似乎超越了生命與非生命的界限,而覆盆子果泥與陽光形成奇妙的結合,讓電流流動。新材料正在克服自然和科技的限制,並為人們與他人和環境的互動開闢新途徑。


The hallmark of the digital age is the interaction of humans and machines, even to the point of merging the two. One important field here is materials research. Intelligent materials go into the interfaces for human-machine interaction.
Along with visionary researchers, some of whom toil for decades undaunted, nature provides an almost endless source of examples and inspiration for new materials – rather than simply being exploited for raw materials. Scientists and designers, nano-researchers and technology devotees are united by the drive to think ahead, coupled with the courage to break through familiar boundaries.
Already, such traditional crafts as instrument making are experimenting with plastics from the 3D printer; bionic prostheses are turning science fiction into reality; the proto-cell seems to transcend the boundary between living and non-living, and raspberry puree forms a wonderful bond with sunlight and allows electricity to flow.
New materials are overcoming the limits of nature and technology and opening up new ways for people to interact with one another and their environment. In this rapid development, we are only at the beginning.

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♦ 未來數位時代的集體目標
 Collective Objectives - Goals for the Digital Age
 
 

如何為數位化提供框架,以促進社會凝聚力、生態永續性和社會正義,同時保持面向未來。
人們對數位發展有著廣泛的期望,例如科技和經濟進步、即時獲取資訊、日益精確的科學數據、各個層面的娛樂活動及全天候保持全球社會聯繫。所謂的“用戶”不必對幕後發生的一切進行太多的思考,而這些思考必須保持可用以組織全球範圍內飛速增長的數據流。“數據資料處理”不再是電腦科學家和書呆子的專屬領域,對社會的影響也越來越受到關注。然而一個核心問題仍然存在:數位世界正在以驚人的速度為越來越多的人開發各種可能性,人類究竟在追求什麼目標?目標的想法是否存在?我們可以採取什麼明智的方法來應對這樣一個事實:我們不僅在全球範圍內聯網,而且還是不斷增長的數據供應商,受到越來越多的控制?自然哲學家、未來學家、電腦科學家和心理學家正在思考如何為數位化提供框架,以促進社會凝聚力、生態永續性和社會正義,同時保持面向未來。


There is a broad array of expectations of digital development, such as technological and economic progress, immediate access to information, increasingly precise scientific data, entertainment on all levels, and maintaining social contacts worldwide around the clock.
For their part, the so-called “users” don’t have to put much thought into everything going on behind the scenes and that has to remain available to organize the data streams skyrocketing worldwide.
But “data processing” is no longer the exclusive domain of computer scientists and nerds by any means. And the impacts on society are increasingly coming into view. A central question remains, however: What goal is humanity even pursuing with all the possibilities the digital world is developing for an ever-increasing number of people at breakneck speed? Does the idea of a goal even exist? And what sensible approach can we take to the fact we’re not just networked together worldwide – we’re also constant suppliers of data, subject to increasing control?
Natural philosophers, futurists, computer scientists, and psychologists are reflecting on how to provide a framework for digitalization so that it promotes social cohesion, ecological sustainability, and social justice – while remaining future-oriented.

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♦ 高頻交易對全球金融市場的影響
    Hyper-Acceleration – Trading at the Speed of Light
 
 

數位交易的常識性框架至關重要,高頻交易對整個經濟市場產生重大的影響。
高頻交易是一種自動化的股票交易方法,決定性因素是速度:誰擁有最快的電腦、最聰明的演算法、更好的數據連接和到證券交易所的最短物理距離,誰就有優勢。高頻交易通常只持有幾毫秒的股票,然後以略高的價格賣出,這種方法可以在短時間內賺取可觀的利潤,但也會對市場造成嚴重破壞。使用演算法計算複雜系統內的概率並預測結果的想法起源於1970年代,當時,新一代科學家首次使用演算法來預測輪盤賭球落在輪盤上的位置。如今,高頻交易也採用了類似的方法,但批評人士警告說,這種股票交易對金融界以外的“實體經濟”有負面影響,最近的一些股市崩盤似乎是由高頻交易引起的,這種做法在科技和戰略上非常複雜,以至於很少有人理解,這增加了被操縱的風險,這就是為什麼數位交易的常識性框架至關重要,尤其是高頻交易對整個經濟產生如此重大的影響。


High-frequency trading is an automated method of stock trading. The decisive factor is speed: whoever has the fastest computers, the cleverest algorithms, the better data connection and the shortest physical distance to the stock exchange has an advantage. High-frequency trading often involves holding stocks for just milliseconds, before selling them on at slightly higher prices. The method can rake in considerable profits in a short period of time – but it can also wreak havoc on markets.
The idea of using algorithms to calculate probability within complex systems and forecast outcomes originated in the 1970s. Back then, a new generation of scientists first used algorithms to predict where a roulette ball would land on the wheel.
Similar methods are being used today in high-frequency trading. But critics warn that this type of stock trading has negative effects on the ‘real economy’ beyond the financial world. And some recent stock market crashes seem to have been caused by high-frequency trading. The practice is so technically and strategically complex that few people understand it, which increases the risk of manipulation. That’s why a commonsense framework for digital trading is crucial, especially as high-frequency trading has such a major impact on the economy at large.

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♦ 發展全球的數位肢體語言
   The Emoji ABC - Developing a Global Language
 
 

越深入這些看似微不足道的圖標背後的世界,就越能看出這個微觀世界是“真實”世界的反映。廣受好評的紀錄片,荷蘭國家公共廣播公司播出黃金時段之專題紀錄片。
它不再只是處於不同情緒狀態的黃色圓臉:從愛狗者到運動員再到素食者–有一個表情符號幾乎可以滿足我們每個人的興趣。每年全球發送量超過100億,與數位世界中所有要識別的符號一樣,每一張小圖片背後都有一個代碼。儘管在世界上所有語言的情况下,這一代碼將一個已經建立的類比符號系統轉化為數位世界,但在表情符號的情况下,這一代碼首次帶來了符號。因此,是那些决定代碼的人對表情符號字母表具有影響力:位於加利福尼亞州的Unicode聯盟,理論上,它是一個非營利組織,但實際上它主要由世界上最大的科技公司的員工組成。批評就從這裡開始:為爭取不被排除在表情符號世界之外,來自語言學家、電腦科學家和媒體理論家,他們看到了該聯盟所代表的利益嚴重失衡。如何改進在數位世界中發明新語言的過程是一個複雜的問題,在用戶希望交流快速而簡單中,爭奪這些小圖片的過程,存在著巨大的經濟利益。


It's no longer just round yellow faces in different emotional states: From dog lovers to athletes to vegetarians - there is an emoji to suit just about every one of our interests. Over 10 billion are sent worldwide every year. At the end of 2021, users could choose from a palette of 3,633 different symbols. And as with all symbols that are meant to be recognized in the digital world, behind each little picture there is a code.
While, in the case of all the world's languages, this code translates an already established analog symbol system into the digital world, in the case of emojis the code brings forth the symbol for the very first time.
Thus, it is those who decide on the codes that have power over the emoji alphabet: The Unicode Consortium, based in California. In theory, it’s a non-profit organization, but in practice it's mostly made up of employees from the world's biggest tech companies. This is where criticism starts: From activists fighting not to be excluded from the emoji universe, and from linguists, computer scientists, and media theorists who see a severe imbalance in the interests the consortium represents.
But the question of how to improve this process for inventing a new language in the digital world is complex. There are massive economic interests in the fight over these little pictures - and what’s more, users want communication to be fast and easy.

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♦ 機器進行曲-人工智慧的運用發展
   Machines on the March - Can AI Be Controlled
 
 

這是一部具創新紀錄片,關於人工智慧跨越了半個多世紀的驚人進步、運用、發展和局限的影片。
參訪歐洲、美國、加拿大和日本的研究人員,並與AI和深度學習教父、圖靈獎、 阿斯圖里亞斯親王獎科學技術獎得主、人工智慧研究總監、IBM 醫療保健和生命科學研究副總裁、人工智慧研究員和深度學習先驅牛津大學人類未來研究所哲學家等多位領先科學家,以通俗易懂的語言來探討進步的數位科技。

人與機器之間的競爭由來已久,但直到最近才涉及機器工作,而不是智力工作。今天,人們不僅普遍知道科技發展本身總是超越自我,迄今為止“思維機器”或“人工智慧”也被有意識地運用,用於人類技能不可或缺的領域,例如醫學或心理診斷等敏感領域。雖然有些人認為人類的未來在於自由發揮我們的創造力,但一旦機器接管了我們的一切,在日本的一家廣告公司中,一台機器已經成為創意團隊的一部分,並提交自己的競選草稿。所有現有的人工智慧系統都有一個共同點:它們處理大量由人類收集、分類和輸入的數據。但這些科技正在更好地學習如何獨立評估這些數據,並“一夜之間”對更加精細的流程進行評估,這可能離人類復雜的聯想和組合能力的思考還有很長的路要走,但它已經太接近我們日常生活的一部分,以至於我們不能不認真關注競爭,因為來自世界各個學科的科學家早就在做。


Competition between human and machine has long existed, but until recently only concerning mechanical work, not intellectual. Today, not only is it generally known that technological developments per se always surpass themselves, but "thinking machines" or "artificial intelligence" are consciously being used in areas where, until now, exclusively human skills seemed indispensable, for example in sensitive areas like medicine or psychological diagnosis.
And while some see the human future in the freedom to live out our creative side, as soon as machines take over everything else for us, in a Japanese advertising agency a machine is already part of the creative team and submits its own campaign drafts.
All existing artificial intelligence systems have one thing in common:  They work with enormous amounts of data which has been gathered, sorted and entered by humans. But these technologies are learning better and better how to evaluate this data independently and "overnight" for ever more finely tuned processes. This may still be a long way from human thinking with its complex associative and combinatorial abilities - but it is already too close and too much a part of our everyday lives for us not to keep a serious eye on the competition - as scientists from a wide range of disciplines have long been doing.

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