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追求新知系列

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片名:追求新知系列

人類總是對知識充滿渴望,無論是為了改善自己的生活和環境,還是純粹出於好奇和想要瞭解事情的真相,如果沒有科學發現,人類就不會以如此快的速度進化,如果沒有我們透過科學和學術獲得的知識,我們今天所知道的生活將是不可想像的。創新和新見解以更快的速度融入我們的生活,我們觀察科學家、科技人員和發明家尋找增加人類知識的方法,這些優質吸引人的電影伴隨著他們探索知識。
Human have  always had a thirst for knowledge – whether it be to improve their life and circumstances or out of sheer curiosity and the urge to get to the bottom of things. Without scientific discoveries, humanity would not have evolved at such a rapid pace. Life as we know it today would be unthinkable without the knowledge we gain through science and scholarship. Innovations and new insights are integrated into our lives in ever quicker succession. We watch scientists, technicians and inventors as they look for ways to increase human knowledge. These fascinating films accompany them in their Quest for Knowledge.
 
 
糧食與環保兼具的海藻-(1) 海洋中的褐金
   Seaweed:The Oceans’ Brown Gold
 
 

海藻是碘的來源,碘具有殺菌作用是一種防腐劑,但這還不是全部:科學家發現,常常在廣大的水下森林中生長的大型海藻具有一系列其他的特質,它們對生物多樣性是不可或缺的,並在吸收二氧化碳以及氣候保護方面發揮著關鍵作用。來自法國和智利的研究團隊正共同合作,探索兩國沿海的海藻森林的科學和經濟潛力。主要目標是促進海藻養殖和保護海藻森林,它們是一種受到威脅的資源:如果全球暖化以目前的速度繼續下去,它們將會消失。

Seaweed is a source of iodine, which is an antiseptic. But that is not all: Scientist have discovered that large algae, which often grow in extensive underwater forests, have a whole range of other qualities. They’re indispensable for biodiversity and play a key role in the absorption of carbon dioxide and thus in climate protection. Research teams from France and Chile are working together to explore the scientific and economic potential of seaweed forests off the coasts of the two countries. Key goals are to promote seaweed farming and protect seaweed forests. They are a resource under threat: They will disappear if global warming continues at its current rate.

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糧食與環保兼具的海藻-(2) 歐洲未來糧食的保障
   From the Garden of the Sea – Seaweed Farmers in Europe
 
 

海藻的多樣特性及對環境、氣候調節和食物安全的重要性,並呼籲保護海洋生態系統和開發可持續食物來源,以確保未來的糧食安全。

儘管地球表面的70%被水覆蓋,但我們的食物整體上僅有極少部分來自海洋,然而,海藻是一種既營養豐富又可持續的食材,雖然在東亞的某些地區,海藻數千年來一直是菜單上的一部分,但在其他地區,這種概念仍在逐漸被接受。在挪威的海岸線上,水域通常非常清澈且營養豐富,海藻種植業正在逐漸蓬勃發展。

Although 70 per cent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, overall only a small fraction of our food comes from the sea. Seaweed is, however, a foodstuff that’s both nutritious and sustainable. While it has been on the menu in parts of eastern Asia for millennia, in other regions the idea is still catching on. Along the coast of Norway, where the waters are often very clear and nutrient-rich, the seaweed growing business is gradually gaining momentum.

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地理工程學–地球工程技術拯救氣候危機
   Geoengineering:Can Technology Save the Climate
 
 

探討地球工程學作為應對極端氣候變遷的可能解決方案所帶來的影響和問題,科學家在探索各種地球工程學技術,包括直接空氣捕獲和太陽地球工程等方法,這些技術涉及對自然過程的重大影響,可能會產生長期的未知後果,呼籲人們深入思考氣候變遷因應策略的道德和相應的代價及風險。

如果我們不採取積極努力的措施來保護氣候,我們將無法阻止全球超過《巴黎協定》設定的兩度目標,大多數專家都同意這一點,同時,研究人員正在探討不同的方法,以確保我們仍能達到這一目標。越來越多的技術被討論,可以總稱為「地球工程學」,這些包括被稱為「直接空氣捕獲」的措施,即直接從周圍的空氣中過濾二氧化碳,或者像「太陽地球工程」這樣的過程。第二種方法包括將太陽的光線引開地球,以減緩「溫室效應」,進而減緩全球變暖,在討論的方法中,例如,有一種技術上具有挑戰性的方法,即在太陽和地球之間安裝鏡子,更實際的方法包括讓雲變亮,以增強它們反射陽光進入太空的能力,或讓天空變暗以提供降溫,這是從火山爆發產生的火山灰雲中觀察到的現象。
所有這些過程都涉及對自然過程進行重大干預,其長期後果幾乎難以預見。科學家、環保人士和政治決策者面臨一個困境,地球工程學提供了對極端氣候變化的快速解決方案,這樣做的代價是什麼?

If we fail to take drastic measures to protect the climate, we will be unable to keep global warming from exceeding the two degrees Celsius target set in the Paris Agreement. Most experts share this opinion. Meanwhile, researchers are investigating different ways to ensure we are still able to reach the goal. Increasingly, technologies are being discussed that can all be summarized with the term “geoengineering.” These include measures known as “direct air capture,” or the filtering of CO2 right out of the surrounding air, or processes such as “solar geoengineering.” The second method encompasses different ways of steering the sun’s rays away from the earth in order to slow the “greenhouse effect” and with it, global warming. Among the approaches discussed, for example, is a technologically challenging one that would install mirrors between the sun and the earth. More feasible are methods to brighten up the clouds in order to enhance their ability to reflect sunlight into space or darken the skies to provide cooling. This is something that’s been observed in ash clouds that come from volcanic eruptions.
All these processes involve making significant interventions in natural processes, the long-term consequences of which are barely foreseeable. Scientists, environmentalists and political decision makers are faced with a dilemma. Geoengineering holds out rapid remedies to the extremes of climate change. But at what price?

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細菌的多樣性:是益生菌還是病菌
   Bacteria Both Friend and Foe
 
 

細菌會讓我們生病,也能讓我們的身體保持平衡,它們對我們的健康極具重要性,每個人身上攜帶的微生物數量與身體細胞的數量一樣多。這部電影深入奇妙的超小世界,了解看不見的微生物生態系世界,讓不可見變得可見。

細菌常被負面評價,人們總將其視為死亡和疾病的代表,被視為一種看不見的邪惡。然而,為什麼人體內外攜帶著與自身細胞數量相當的細菌和微生物呢?答案很簡單:因為細菌對人體健康至關重要,身體的不同部位,如鼻子、口腔或腸道,形成各自的生態系統,各種細菌在其中扮演著重要角色。科學家們現正研究各個區域中哪些細菌對人體重要,哪些可能有害。醫學和工業界正充分利用這些認識,開發新的藥物和清潔劑,這些新產品不再像抗生素或強效化學清潔劑那樣試圖殺死所有細菌,而是以調節的方式介入,創造出有助於我們身體的健康平衡,這不僅使得各種疾病能夠更有效治療,同時也減少了多重抗藥性超級細菌的風險。

Bacteria have a bad reputation. They are associated with death and disease and are considered by many to be an invisible evil. How is it then, that humans carry as many bacteria and other microorganisms, both outside and inside, as the body's own cells? The answer is simple: because bacteria are vital for human health. Different areas of the body, such as the nose, mouth or intestines, form their own ecosystems, where different types of bacteria contribute. Researchers are now looking into which bacteria in each space are important and which are harmful. Both medical science and the industry are using this knowledge to develop new drugs and cleaning agents. These are no longer intended to kill all bacteria, as antibiotics or aggressive chemical cleaning agents do, but intervene in a regulating way, by creating a healthy balance that promotes the bacteria that are useful and beneficial to us humans. In this way, not only can diseases be treated individually, but the danger of multi-resistant superbugs is lessened as well.

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全新的醫學奇蹟武器–mRNA技術
   mRNA Technology–Medicine's New Miracle Weapon
 
 

探討mRNA 疫苗在對抗COVID-19 大流行中的成功,以及這種技術在未來對治療和預防其他疾病的潛在應用,mRNA技術的突破為醫學領域帶來了巨大的轉變,同時也提出仍需進一步研究和評估的風險和挑戰。

冠狀病毒危機成為信使核糖核酸(mRNA)技術發展的轉折點,長期以來,這種技術似乎不適合治療用途,直到成功應用於對抗Covid-19的疫苗,從那時起,mRNA技術一直在快速發展,使得在該領域工作的科學家更接近實現他們的目標,包括治療先前無法治愈的心臟和腫瘤疾病。全球有150多種基於mRNA的治療和疫苗正在研發中,我們探討這項技術的巨大潛力並考慮其中的一些風險。

The coronavirus crisis was a turning point in the development of messenger RNA technology. For a long time, it didn’t seem suited to therapeutic use, until it was successfully used as the basis for vaccines against Covid-19. mRNA technology has been undergoing rapid development ever since, bringing scientists working in the field closer to their goals, including the treatment of previously incurable heart and tumor diseases. More than 150 mRNA-based therapies and vaccines are in development worldwide. We explore the technology’s great potential and consider some of the risks.

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城市動植物的極速演化
   The Turbo Evolution:Urban Flora and Fauna
 
 

城市中許多物種因人類活動而退化受到威脅,而另一些物種則在意想不到的地方繁衍生息,新的基因研究顯示,植物和動物適應惡劣生活條件的能力比預期的要快,為達爾文的進化論翻開新的篇章,研究人員對大自然如何將污染、噪音和廢物轉化為新適應的創造性能量感到驚訝。這部紀錄片由歐美的研究團隊揭開城市演變的謎團,一部引人入勝的科學紀錄片,展示地球上生命的新領域。

為了生存,動植物必須適應我們日益城市化的世界,例如改變它們的飲食習慣或交配行為。大自然似乎非常善於利用環境和光污染、噪音、垃圾及密集建築環境等看似敵對的因素,作為改變的動力。這些適應變化都反映在動植物的DNA改變中,在這種高速演化中,遺傳基因物質在短短幾十年內發生演變,而不是幾千年,這對於人類與自然之間的關係意味著什麼呢?

If they are to survive, animals and plants must adapt to life in our increasingly urbanized world, for example by changing their eating habits or mating behavior. Nature appears to be astonishingly adept at harnessing apparently hostile factors such as environmental and light pollution, noise, garbage and the dense built environment as a motor for change. Many of these adaptations are reflected in changes to animal and plant DNA. In this turbocharged evolution, genetic material changes over just a few decades instead of millennia. What does this mean for the relationship between humans and nature?

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隔離:對身心的耐力考驗
   Isolation: endurance test for body and mind
 
 

人是一種群居社會動物,隔離會使人生病,一部關於隔離及對健康影響的傑出科學紀錄片。

人們旅行到地球上最偏遠的地區,甚至航行到太空。在那裡,他們與其他人隔離數週甚至數年。這種極端隔離對身體和心理意味著什麼?科學家們進行了研究,發現在隔離狀態下,為了適應新環境,某些大腦結構會發生變化。隔離會給所有群居動物帶來壓力,人類、老鼠甚至魚類在在被隔離時會出現行為問題,其後果是抑鬱、焦慮或過動。隔離造成的壓力也會削弱免疫系統,在一系列實驗中,受試者收集唾液、尿液和毛髮。樣本顯示,當受試者經歷隔離時,應激激素皮質醇會增加。在全球新冠病毒大流行期間,隨著政府實施封鎖和接觸限制,隔離研究成為焦點,這些特殊情況對人們的身心有什麼影響?如何減輕隔離的後果?我們有哪些資源可以幫助我們度過隔離階段?

People travel to the most remote regions of the earth, and even voyage into space. There, they spend weeks or even years isolated from the rest of humanity. What does this kind of extreme isolation mean, for the body and psyche? Scientists have conducted studies and found out that in isolation, certain brain structures change, in order to adapt to the new environment.
Isolation causes stress for all social animals. Humans, mice and even fish species develop behavioural problems, when isolated: Depression, anxiety or hyperactivity are the consequences. Stress caused by isolation also weakens the immune system. In a series of experiments, test subjects collected saliva, urine and hair. The samples showed that the stress hormone cortisol increased when the test subjects had experienced isolation.
During the global Corona pandemic, with government-imposed lockdowns and contact restrictions, research on isolation has come into focus. What effects do these exceptional situations have on people's bodies and minds? And: what resources do we have to help us survive phases of isolation?


我們人體內的病毒與生態系統
    Viruses Inside Us
 
 

影片將我們帶入病毒研究的精彩世界,病毒是所有生命的起源嗎?為什麼你可以用病毒治癒?為什麼病毒會突然變成病原體?如何避免像Covid-19這樣的流行病或至少有效地遏制它們?

病毒無處不在,只要生物生命存在,它們就可能存在,可能是地球上所有生命的起源。病毒已成為人類發展的進化引擎,大約50%的人類遺傳基因物質來自病毒,例如長期記憶和胚胎懷,它們有助於塑造免疫系統,幫助我們保持長期記憶,並對我們的消化道很有用,但病毒也可能構成威脅,西班牙流感、愛滋病、伊波拉病毒,以及最近的新冠肺炎Covid-19等流行病。研究人員發現,這些疾病很可能是由人畜共通疾病引起的,人畜共通可以從動物傳染給人類,反之亦然,為了防止進一步流行,研究人員正在尋找新的病毒變種,在非洲雨林,他們定期分析某些動物攜帶的病毒,目的是在早期階段確定新的人畜共通疾病的風險。病毒世界和人類世界之間的平衡發揮著重要作用,保護生物多樣性和動物的自然棲息地是保護世界免受危險的新流行病侵害的關鍵。

Viruses are everywhere. They are survival experts and may possibly have been the origin of all life on Earth. Viruses have served as an engine of evolution, including human development. Scientists say, around half of all human genetic material contains segments originating from viruses: long-term memory and embryonic pregnancy are just two examples. But viruses can also pose a threat: Pandemics such as the Spanish flu, AIDS, Ebola and most recently, CoVid-19. Researchers have found that these illnesses were likely caused by zoonotic diseases, which can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa. To prevent further epidemics, researchers are on the lookout for new virus variants: In the rainforests of Africa, they regularly analyze viruses carried by certain animal species. The aim is to identify risks for new zoonotic diseases at an early stage. The equilibrium between the viral and the human worlds plays an important role: Preserving biodiversity and animals’ natural habitat is key to protecting the world from dangerous new epidemics.

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