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科學探索新知

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  • 規格:全套 7 片DVD,英語發音中文字幕
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片名:科學探索新知
           The Quest for Knowledge (Ⅸ)

人總是渴望獲得知識 - 無論是改善自己的生活環境,還是出於純粹的好奇心或對事物底層的渴望。沒有科學發現,人類就不會以如此快的速度發展,如果沒有科學和學術帶來的知識,我們今天所知的生活將是不可想像的。創新和新見解以更快的速度融入我們的生活,我們跟隨科學家、技術人員和發明家,因為他們不斷尋找增加人類知識的方法,這些優質的電影伴隨著他們一同探索人類的知識。
 
Man has always had a thirst for knowledge – whether it be to improve his life and circumstances or out of sheer curiosity and the urge to get to the bottom of things. Without scientific discoveries, humanity would not have evolved at such a rapid pace. Life as we know it today would be unthinkable without the knowledge we gain through science and scholarship. Innovations and new insights are integrated into our lives in ever quicker succession. We watch scientists, technicians and inventors as they look for ways to increase human knowledge. These fascinating films accompany them in their Quest for Knowledge.
 
■氣候變遷–歷史建築的危機
       ■無需言語的溝通–面部表情語言的研究
       ■別慌張–如何控制人群的研究
       ■科學對抗茲卡病毒
       ■植物的研究–它們會思考和感覺嗎
       ■睪酮的研究–攻擊性荷爾蒙
       ■擁抱的療癒力–為何觸摸是健康的
 
 
氣候變遷–歷史建築的危機
   Climate Change –A Threat for Historic Buildings
 
 

氣候變遷不僅對人、動物和植物構成威脅,對歷史遺跡也構成威脅。透過一系列複雜的實驗,科學家們希望能更瞭解極端溫度波動的影響,並找到保護壁畫、珍貴傢俱和其他歷史文物的新方法。
本研究的目的是找出保存這些文化資產的方法和途徑。

Climate change is a threat not only to people, animals and plants, but also to monuments. By conducting a series of complex experiments, scientists hope to discover more about the effects of extreme temperature fluctuations and to find new ways to protect murals, valuable furniture and other historical objects.

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無需言語的溝通–面部表情語言的研究
   Communication Without Words–The Language of Facial Expressions
 
 

皺起的眉頭、喜氣洋洋的微笑、抽搐的鼻子—我們的臉每秒鐘都在說話,即使我們沒有開口。只用八塊面部肌肉,就能產生超過10,000種不同的表情。
美國心理學家保羅·埃克曼發明了面部動作編碼系統,簡稱FACS,FACS列出了每一塊肌肉及其運動潜力,根據這一科學方法,每一個面部表情背後的情感都可以被解讀。埃克曼的理論在世界範圍內產生了重大影響,特別是在美國,許多機場都由受過專門訓練的聯邦航空安全部隊巡邏,他們的任務是通過面部分析來識別潜在的罪犯,但是面部表情有多清晰呢?將來連相機都能看出來嗎?

A furrowed brow, a beaming smile, a twitch of  the nose – our face is talking every second, even if we are not saying anything. It can produce more than 10,000 different expressions – with just eight facial muscles.
US psychologist Paul Ekman developed the Facial Action Coding System, known as FACS for short. FACS lists every muscle and its movement potential. According to this scientific approach, the emotion behind each and every facial expression can be read. Ekman’s theory has assumed major influence world-wide, but particularly in the United States where many airports are patrolled by specially trained FACS security forces. Their task is to recognize potential criminals through facial analysis. But how clearly can facial expressions be decyphered? And in future will even cameras be able to read them?

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別慌張–如何控制人群的研究
   Don’t Panic–How to Control Crowds of People
 
 

如果人群開始恐慌,很快就會發生危險。科學家、工程師和救援機構,正聯手尋找緊急情況下儘快疏散公共場所的方法。
科學家們想預防這樣的災難,他們正在研究人們在群體中的反應,以及如何在緊急情况下迅速將他們帶到安全地帶。同時,工程師們正在研製監控系統並及時預測人群密度過高,這樣做的目的是防止恐慌和可能導致的大規模事故,通過提前發出警告並向安全部隊提供適當的資訊,監視和疏散系統可以提高安全性,並有助於防止涉及大量人群的悲劇。

If crowds of people start to panic, this can quickly become dangerous. Scientists, engineers and rescue services are teaming up to find ways to evacuate public places as swiftly as possible in the event of an emergency.
Scientists want to prevent such disasters. They are studying how people react in groups and how they can quickly be brought to safety in an emergency. At the same time engineers are working on surveillance systems that predict excessively high crowd densities in good time. The aim is to prevent panic and the mass accidents this can result in. By issuing advance warnings and providing security forces with appropriate information, surveillance and evacuation systems can increase safety and help to prevent tragedies involving large crowds.

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科學對抗茲卡病毒
   Science v. the Zika Virus
 
 

茲卡病毒於1947年首次從烏干達的猴子體內被分離出來,當地也發現了第一批人類感染,後來感染又在非洲和東南亞發生。2007年以前,只有14例人類病例的記錄。因此,2015年該病毒在美洲、太平洋島嶼和東南亞爆發感染,著實令人震驚。一般來說,茲卡病毒症狀較輕微,但懷孕期間感染可導致嚴重的出生缺陷,它也會引起吉巴氏綜合症–一種很罕見的神經系統疾病。研究人員正試圖確定這種疾病突然開始流行的原因,以及這種病毒是如何造成如此嚴重的損害。

The Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 in monkeys in Uganda. The first human infections were identified there too, then a few more in Africa and southeast Asia. Only 14 cases in humans were recorded before 2007. So it came as a shock when an outbreak of the virus spread through the Americas, a number of Pacific islands and southeast Asia in 2015. Zika virus disease is generally mild, but an infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Rarely, it can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disease. Researchers are trying to establish what led to the sudden epidemic and how the virus can cause such damage.

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植物的研究–它們會思考和感覺嗎
     (植物神經生物學的研究)
   Plants–Can They Think and Feel
 
 

近年來,越來越多的科學家向世界介紹了一個新領域:植物神經生物學,他們的研究挑戰了植物界和動物界之間的傳統界限,他們說植物能夠感知環境並對其做出反應。電和化學信號似乎扮演著重要的角色,類似於動物的信號處理,那麼植物能思考和感覺嗎?
非洲林波波大草原上的傘刺金合歡,在乾旱時期,它是許多草食動物唯一的食物來源,透過化學信號,植物彼此新增葉片中的單寧含量,結果,放牧的羚羊被毒死,作為掠食者反被消滅。像這樣的相互關係為迷人的植物世界中的科學家們形成了一個廣闊的研究領域。

A small but growing number of scientists have introduced the world to a new field in recent years: the neurobiology of plants. Their research challenges the traditional boundaries between the plant and animal kingdoms. They say that plants are able to perceive their environment and react to it. Electrical and chemical signaling appear to play important roles, resembling signal processing in animals. So are plants able to think and feel?
An example is the umbrella thorn acacia in the African Limpopo savannah. During a period of drought, it was the only food source for many herbivores and was severely threatened by overgrazing. Through chemical messengers the plants agreed among themselves to increase the tannin content in their leaves. As a result, grazing antelopes were poisoned and eliminated as predators. Interrelationships like these form a vast field of research for scientists within the fascinating world of plants.

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睪酮的研究–攻擊性荷爾蒙
   Testosterone–The Aggression Hormone
 
 

睪酮是男性主要的性荷爾蒙。人們常說,在它的影響下,男人被本能和侵略所驅使。但是,最近的研究卻有相反的說法,發現睪酮能使男性有策略地採取行動並促進社會行為—即使這是為了提升自己的地位。相反的,荷爾蒙也受到社會地位和個人性格的影響,「睪酮等於攻擊性、等於力量」這一基本等式根本就不成立。

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone. It is often said that under its influence, men are driven by instinct and aggression. But recent studies tell a different story, finding that testosterone enables men to act strategically and promotes social behavior – even if that is aimed at boosting their own status. Conversely, the hormone is also influenced by social status and individual personality. The basic equation “testosterone equals aggression equals power” simply doesn’t add up.

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擁抱的療癒力–為何觸摸是健康的
   The Healing Power of Cuddles–Why Touch is Healthy
 
 

人類是社交性的動物,需要其他人的陪伴,與其他人的身體接觸非常重要。有些科學家更進一步說:我們需要被觸摸,甚至擁抱才能保持健康,有大量證據顯示,長期處於身心隔離狀態的人更容易生病。畢竟,觸覺是我們獲得的第一種知覺,也是最不因年齡增長而衰弱的知覺。

Humans are social beings and need the company of other humans. Physical contact with other members of the species is also known to be very important. But some scientists go one step further: they say we need to be touched and even cuddled to stay healthy. There is a wealth of evidence to show that people who spend long periods in physical and mental isolation are more likely to succumb to illness. After all, touch is the first sense we acquire and the last to diminish when we age.

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